Thursday, August 1st

Model-based prediction of metabolic cost in human locomotion

Ross Miller
Glen Lichtwark

Speakers: Herre Faber, Anne Koelewijn, Adrian Lai, Brian Umberger, Amy Wu

The session will be a competition/challenge in using musculoskeletal modeling to predict the metabolic energy expended during human walking and running. Participants are provided with experimental data (motion capture, GRF, EMG) and from these data use a modeling approach of their choosing to estimate the metabolic cost. Experts in a wide variety of modeling techniques of varying complexity will participate. During the session, the actual measured metabolic costs from indirect calorimetry will be revealed and the most accurate approaches highlighted. The goal is to develop best practices for model-based prediction of metabolic cost.


Multi-scale modeling to evaluate musculoskeletal loading during locomotion and its role in degenerative joint disease

Ilse Jonkers
Petri Tanska

Speakers: Rami Korhonen, Corinne Henak, Mario Lamontagne, Geoffrey Ng

Musculoskeletal loading contributes to the onset and progression of degenerative joint diseases. However, it remains unclear how movement characteristics, joint loading, cartilage homeostasis and cell faith can be causally related. Multi-scale modeling approaches that combine 3D motion capture and musculoskeletal modeling with macro- and micro-scale FE modeling techniques are promising approaches to gain insight in these relations. These insights are however of utmost importance to design treatment interventions aiming to successfully halt cartilage degeneration, stimulate repair and prevent the onset of the disease. Within this symposium, we will report insights gained from combining gait analysis, to tissue and cartilage constituent modeling and indicate the current caveats in untangling the role of mechanical loading in degenerative joint diseases.


Mentorship Matters – A tribute to Jean Landa Pytel

Wendy Murray
Mary Rodgers

Speakers: Wendy Murray, Jill McNitt Gray, Irene Davis, Mary Rodgers, Melissa Gross

Jean Landa Pytel was one of the founders of the American Society of Biomechanics (ASB), one of the first women in the biomechanics PhD program at the Pennsylvania State University and a mentor to many women in ASB. With her passing last year, it is timely to highlight the importance of mentoring (personified by Jean) and to explore the History of Women in Biomechanics and in ASB. Personal stories will be shared.


Running Injuries

Stefan Grau

Speakers: Max Paquette, Jonatan Jungmalm, Henrik Sørensen, Christopher Napier

Considering the outcome of research about predictors of RRI (training, biomechanical and clinical/anthropometric), it becomes obvious that there are only few studies using a multidisciplinary approach (usually approach within categories or based on one discrete/scalar variable within one category). Statistically significant variables in relation to RRI are usually added to run a regression model, pretending that each included variable is a confounder for the outcome and is directly associated with it. Though, it has to be questioned that the non-training related variables in themselves can lead to RRI. When studying causal mechanisms, training related characteristics should be considered as primary exposures of interest in RRI research. Nevertheless, the development and success of prevention strategies in running will not be successful if the underlying mechanisms are not understood and taken care of by only modifying the training. The symposium intends to present and discuss the latest research approaches in this area.


Enhancing dance performance with biomechanics: A model for movement training and STEAM education.

Sarah Kenny
K. Michael Rowley
Kornelia Kulig

Speakers: Catherine Haber, Danica Hendry, Antonia Zaferiou

The symposium brings together international biomechanists with expertise in dance to discuss the impact of merging these disciplines (science and art) on future movement training and education. Speakers will highlight research examining how laboratory and field-based biomechanics can be used to enhance dancer training across all levels, engaging the next generation through Science, Technology, Engineering, the Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM) education. Specifically, the application of 3D kinematics to understand technical proficiency of dance will be explored. The use of wearables in a dance training environment will be presented with attention to measures associated with dancers' pain-related disability, as well as strategies to improve skill execution. The symposium will close with a panel discussion focused on how wearables can be used in the future to quantify dance movement, enhance artistic expression, and provide value for dance as an effective means to engage youth in STEAM education concepts.


Running footwear compliance: mechanics, energetics and performance

Wouter Hoogkamer
Wannes Swinnen
Shalaya Kipp

Speakers: Wouter Hoogkamer, Emily Farina, Luke Kelly, Benedicte Vanwanseele, Marlene Giandolini

Recently, running shoe midsoles have become more compliant (or softer), without sacrificing resilience (i.e. the relative amount of the stored mechanical energy that is returned). The midsole cushioning properties affect comfort and mechanical measures of impact loading. However, when running on compliant surfaces people adapt their leg mechanics to maintain their habitual center of mass mechanics, which results in complex neuromechanical interactions at the level of the foot and calf. This symposium highlights new research on how foot mechanics, foot function, soft-tissue vibrations, and metabolic cost of running are affected by midsole/surface compliance. We will discuss how recent insights can be leveraged in the footwear creation process and how to extrapolate changes in metabolic cost into expected improvements in running performance.


Biomechanics and Osteoarthritis: Role of muscle on joint loading in OA structural and symptomatic processes 

Cheryl Hubley-Kozey
Janie Astephen Wilson
Kevin Deluzio

Speakers: Walter Herzog, David Lloyd, Katherine Boyer, Kim Bennell

Biomechanical loading has been implicated in OA processes with much of the human work examining joint level biomechanics (kinematics and kinetics). Less well studied is the role of muscle in contributing to the joint-level loading environment. There is evidence that muscle function is affected by OA processes and that muscle contributes to joint loading and stability. The purpose of this symposium is to examine research across methodological areas to evaluate what we currently know about the role of the musculature on the joint loading environment related to OA processes and directions for future work to better understand this relationship.


Breakthroughs in Dynamic Simulations of Human Movement

Scott Delp
Ton van den Bogert

Speakers: Ajay Seth, Colin Smith, Friedl De Groote, Nicholas Bianco

This session will highlight research being conducted using OpenSim, an open source simulation system used by thousands of biomechanics researchers. Speakers will discuss new methods for generating accurate simulations of movement and applications of simulations to areas such as rehabilitation and robotic assistive devices. The session will also provide a proposal for the future of OpenSim.


Using Musculoskeletal Modelling in Comparative Biomechanics

Taylor Dick
Christofer Clemente

Speakers: Taylor Dick, Christofer Clemente, James Charles, Jonas Rubenson, Ashley Heers, Friedl De Groote

Musculoskeletal models are digital representations of bones, muscles, and tendons capable of recreating the kinematics and dynamics of human and animal locomotion. Most commonly, they are used in rehabilitation, sports science, and clinical settings but more recently, they have become a powerful tool in comparative and evolutionary biomechanics. For example, models have been used to understand how unique musculoskeletal structures enable efficient locomotion, to determine how elastic tissues have influenced the evolution of human gait, and to estimate the locomotor capabilities of extinct species based on fossil records. This symposium brings together a diverse group of leading international researchers to highlight new and novel ways to use musculoskeletal modelling beyond the human space.


Applied Shoulder Biomechanics: An International Shoulder Group Symposium

Clark Dickerson
Andrea G. Cutti

Speakers: Andrea Cutti, Melissa Morrow, Andreas Kontaxis, Kristin Zhao, Clark Dickerson

Shoulder biomechanics is growing as a primary and applied discipline within the greater biomechanics' community. This session will highlight the growth and ongoing development of the International Shoulder Group and feature five talks on the application of fundamental knowledge of shoulder biomechanics to address emergent issues in clinical, surgical, rehabilitative, and occupational domains. An extended discussion period at the end of the session will focus on future priorities and direction of shoulder biomechanics.


Friday, August 2nd

Challenges and resolutions in human motion monitoring with wearables

Sue Park
Peter Adamczyk

Speakers: Elizabeth Hsiao-Wecksler, Peter Adamczyk, Sue Park, Kikwang Lee, Stephen Cain

Wearable sensors alleviate the spatial and temporal measurement constraints of laboratories and enable monitoring of human movement in the field such as during daily life and sports. Nevertheless, there remain many technical and practical barriers to realizing the full potential of this technology, including convenience, accuracy, data analysis and interpretation, and communication of results. This session will discuss these challenges and recent advancements aimed at overcoming them. Specific topics include: considerations for defining the minimal sensor set needed to control a powered exoskeleton; a framework for understanding the strengths and limitations of wearable movement sensors in different use cases for training and assessment; new approaches to distilling generalizable knowledge from long-term recordings of real-world, everyday movement; methods for combining biomechanical models and machine learning to balance data accuracy and device simplicity; and an overview of recent trends and impacts of using wearable technology to improve sports performance.


Refreshing Perspectives on Assistive Technology

Karl Zelik
Elizabeth Russell Esposito

Speakers: Elizabeth Esposito, Julie Steele, Levi Hargrove, Deanna Gates

The field of assistive technology continues to make marked progress through advancements and shifts in knowledge paradigms. These advancements are often the result of numerous failed attempts at improving technology. However, research successes are more highly valued and publicized while the important learning process associated with failed attempts is less often shared. Scientists then form opinions and perspectives based on available but incomplete evidence. Substantive changes in opinion/perspective often seem to be discussed informally within small groups during coffee breaks or over a beer, but less often from the podium or in formal publication. This symposium provides a forum for experts in assistive technology to candidly reflect on: 1. What topics/ideas have I recently changed my opinion on and why? 2. Has this altered how I approach research or device development? 3. Has this altered my perspective on grand challenges in the field of assistive technology, or raised my awareness of common misconceptions?


Motor Control in Biomechanics

Paola Contessa
Jim Richards
Walter Herzog

Speakers: Lena Ting, Francisco Valero-Cuevas, Julia Choi, Yasuo Kawakami, Emma Hodson-Tole

Advancements in the understanding of human movement require an integrated approach that includes both the study of the organization of the nervous system and of the biomechanical properties of the musculoskeletal system. This symposium will highlight and foster novel scientific work that bridges elements of motor control and biomechanics to facilitate and encourage an integrated approach to the study of human movement. Five internationally renowned speakers will present their perspective and latest research on applications of motor control in biomechanics that have implications for sport performance, injury prevention, and rehabilitation.


Impact of Obesity on Joints: Body Mass, Biology or Both?

Kelsey Collins
Michael Zuscik

Speakers: Kelsey Collins, Lou DeFrate, Michael Zuscik

Traditionally, mechanical overload has been thought to be the main contributing factor to musculoskeletal damage with obesity. Recent studies demonstrate that both inflammation and diet can play a critical role in maintaining and disrupting musculoskeletal tissue integrity. The goal of this session is to explore the interplay between loading, diet, systemic inflammation, obesity, and musculoskeletal health. We will summarize the current findings in this area, and identify new opportunities to probe important questions at the interface of mechanics and biology using basic science, preclinical model systems and human clinical study approaches.


Personalized surgery for the human knee and ankle joints

Alberto Leardini
Sorin Siegler

Speakers: Claudio Belvedere, Sorin Siegler, Paolo Caravaggi, Richie Gill, Tung-Wu Lu

Personalization, or customization, for orthopedic surgical treatments of the human lower limb joints is becoming possible because of the advances in medical imaging, in biomechanical subject-specific modeling, in computer-assistance, and particularly in the recent technology for additive manufacturing, i.e. 3D printing. The fabrication of devices made layer-by-layer, also in titanium and cromo-cobalt, enables now the design of special features for orthopedics implants. Personalization of the dimensions, definition of new prosthesis-to-bone interfaces, corresponding patient-specific instrumentation can now be fully reconsidered because of this novel technology. This is particular relevant for the knee and ankle joints. A number of preliminary experiences (biomechanical, industrial, and clinical) are already in progress worldwide, and their results will facilitate the introduction of this technology in the field, with the fundamental support of biomechanical science.


"In the wild" application of wearable tech for sport: opportunities and obstacles

Jacqueline Alderson
Thor Besier

Speakers: Valentina Camomilla, Irene Davis, Thor Besier, William Johnson

The recent explosion of wearable technology raises scientific questions surrounding the accuracy, validity, fidelity, resolution and subsequent meaningfulness of data collected in real-world, on-field, sporting contexts. When combined with ongoing advances in high performance computing, and the rise of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques (e.g. machine/deep learning) leveraging mass data sets, the march of wearable tech onto the game, race and sporting fields is set to advance rapidly. This symposium will provide an overview to the real-world use of wearable technologies, with a particular focus on the use of inertial measurement units (IMUs) in applied sporting contexts. Speakers will cover technical limitations and appropriate application for on-field use ;use-case examples of IMU application "in the wild"; what wearable sensor data can tells us about external and internal loads related to injury; and the role of AI in enhancing wearable data and facilitating its use at-scale.


Combined Musculoskeletal and Finite-Element Modeling

Ian Stavness
John Lloyd

Speakers: John Lloyd, Benedikt Sagl, Colin Smith, Elaheh Elyasi, Noor Al-Zanoon

Effective simulation of human anatomical structure and function can benefit from combining low-fidelity models with fast computation times and high-fidelity models that emulate detailed tissue dynamics but have slower computation times. Multibody methods are typically used for the former, modeling structures such as bones, joints and point-to-point muscles, while finite element methods (FEM) are typically used for the latter, modeling deformable tissues and capturing internal stress/strain dynamics. Combining the two can enable the creation of models with efficient, and possibly interactive, simulation times while also providing appropriate fidelity in an area of interest. This special session will bring together modeling experts from around the world that are developing and applying state-of-the-art combined musculoskeletal and finite-element models for the analysis of human biomechanics.


Wearable Sensors in Biomechanics Research: Moving the Laboratory Outdoors

Reed Ferber
Jennifer Hicks

Speakers: Reed Ferber, Jennifer Hicks, Kat Steele, John Barden, Jeff Hausdorff

Wearable sensor technology is a growing multi-billion dollar industry, with inertial measurement units widely available to both researchers and consumers. Wearable sensors, such as accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, are portable and affordable and are quickly becoming a common alternative for biomechanics research. As the biomechanics community begins to embrace this technology and the ability to move out of the traditional laboratory setting, there are unexpected challenges and new opportunities for recording movement data in real-world settings. The purpose of this Symposium is to have our diverse group of experts discuss these challenges and opportunities and through their collective experiences provide insight into how wearable technology can change biomechanics research.


Reflections from Past Career Awardees of the Canadian Society for Biomechanics (CSB/SCB)

Andrew Laing
Salvatore Federico

Speakers: Jack Callaghan, Walter Herzog, Cheryl Hubley-Kozey, Ronald Zernicke

Four previous winners of the prestigious CSB/SCB Career Award will reflect on their careers, how the field of biomechanics has evolved, how the CSB factored into their success, and their perceptions of how the field will continue to contribute to addressing important societal needs in the future (from both basic and applied perspectives). This Symposium will be a wonderful opportunity to learn from, and discuss insights, lessons, and musings, with four global leaders in field of biomechanics in Jack Callaghan, Walter Herzog, Cheryl Hubley-Kozey, and Ronald Zernicke.


Concussion – Mechanisms, prevention, and opportunities for technology

Carolyn Emery
Chris Dennison

Speakers: Carolyn Emery, Christopher Dennison, David Howell, Gunter Siegmund

This symposium will discuss sport-related concussion mechanisms, prevention initiatives, and opportunities for technology. Lessons from the past, current initiatives, and potential future programmes and tools will be outlined by the team. Carolyn will describe evaluation of concussion prevention strategies in youth sport, with examples of evidence-informed strategies effective in reducing the burden of concussions in youth sport. Chris will discuss future directions in technology applied to research injury, and injury mitigation strategies, in both sport and defence contexts. David will discuss the role of dynamic balance evaluations for clinicians, as well as the association between persistent dual-task gait deficits with the risk of sustaining a subsequent musculoskeletal injury once athletes return to sport following concussion. Gunter will discuss the role of wearable sensors in sports and their ability to assist with concussion prevention strategies.


Saturday, August 3rd

Integrating multi-scale approaches to tendon biomechanics

Taija Finni
Hazel Screen

Speakers: Hazel Screen, Huub Maas, Brent Raiteri, Jason Franz, Kornelia Kulig

Tendons serve as force transmitting medium providing pathways from sarcomeres to internal tendon (i.e. aponeurosis) within muscle bellies, to the external tendons connecting muscles to bones. As elastic springs they influence muscle function and improve movement efficiency. As tendons are highly hierarchical structures, it is essential to understand the mechanics at each hierarchical level. In this invited session tendon mechanics and function in various conditions are being discussed at fiber, fascicle, sub-tendon and whole tendon level.


Comparative biomechanics across organizational scales (tissues to whole body dynamics)

Monica Daley
Craig McGowan

Speakers: Mariana Kersh, Spencer Lake, Emanuel Azizi, Natalie Holt, Heather More, Kiisa Nishikawa, Greg Sawicki, Stacey Shield, Christian Hubicki

Comparative studies of animal biomechanics allow researchers to investigate aspects of musculoskeletal function using direct measurement approaches that are often infeasible in human studies. Additionally, comparative approaches can reveal how biomechanical function varies with morphology and body size scaling. Consequently, comparative approaches can provide fundamental insights into musculoskeletal function and sensorimotor control that complement human-focused studies. This symposium will highlight a range of comparative studies across organizational scales from tissues to integrated systems and whole body dynamics. Speakers will present innovative research in comparative animal biomechanics and neuromechanics, highlighting the potential applications of their findings in more applied fields such as human sports science and rehabilitation, bio-inspired robotics and human-assistive devices. This symposium is affiliated with the Comparative Neuromuscular Biomechanics group, which is working to establish a new Technical Group of the International Society of Biomechanics. For more information, and to sign up for membership, see:


Trajectory optimization for human motion

Ton van den Bogert
Brian Umberger

Speakers: Ton van den Bogert, Marko Ackermann, Ross Miller, Vinh Nguyen

Trajectory optimization is the process of finding the trajectories and control inputs for a dynamic system, while minimizing a specified optimization criterion. This symposium presents four exciting applications of trajectory optimization with human musculoskeletal models. The method was first applied for predictive simulations, to discover optimal movement strategies for a given movement task. Now that these optimization problems can be solved in a matter of minutes, we can do simulation studies on a large number of "virtual subjects", while varying design parameters of the system. We can explore an entire class of optimization criteria and determine which of them best predicts human motor behavior. This has long been a fundamental question in biomechanics. Finally, trajectory optimization makes it possible to estimate kinematic and kinetic variables from low-quality and incomplete motion sensor data, by making use of our knowledge of musculoskeletal system dynamics.


Methods in Spinal Biomechanics

Elizabeth Clarke
Claire Jones

Speakers: Hans-Joachim Wilke, Cornelia Neidlinger-Wilke, Thomas Oxland, Claire Jones

A range of methodologies have been developed to better understand biomechanics of normal function, injury, disease, and intervention of the spine, disc and spinal cord. These include non-invasive imaging in living humans, experimental models using human and animal cadaveric specimens, in vivo anaesthetised animals, finite element models, inanimate physical systems, and combinations thereof. Some of these are established and widely used; others are novel, developing or unique. Many of these methods are technically challenging, requiring multidisciplinary collaboration or specialised skills or equipment. A recent review highlighted that the most important advancements in this field will come from an increasing level of interaction between disciplines, research groups, and users of different methodologies and models. This symposium will bring together leaders and innovators from different facets of spinal biomechanics; highlighting the advantages, disadvantages and technical challenges of their established and novel techniques, in an effort to increase collaboration between these disciplines and research groups.


Eccentric contractions

Heiliane de Brito Fontana
Daniel Hahn

Speakers: Roger Enoka, Venus Joouma, Geoffrey Power, Anthony Blazevich

Eccentric contractions are a frequent matter of debate in Biomechanics. Despite the several secrets that still surround our knowledge on this type of contraction, there has been great recent advances in our understanding of fundamental aspects related to the neuromuscular control and to the mechanisms of eccentric force production. This symposium will be focused on these aspects, including studies related to eccentric contractions in the elderly population and the functional adaptations of eccentric training.


In vivo musculoskeletal mechanics and properties

Yasuo Kawakami
Huub Maas

Speakers: Glen Lichtwark, Huub Maas, Andrew Biewener, Yasuo Kawakami, Kei Masani, François Hug, Filiz AteĊŸ, Constantinos Maganaris

This session is for the exchange of latest knowledge of the mechanical and functional characteristics of skeletal muscles and other connective tissues (tendons and fascial structures). Focus is on the in vivo aspect of musculoskeletal behavior, through different approaches at micro- to macroscopic levels. Findings on humans and other animal species will be introduced, and discussion will be made to unveil the systematic feature of skeletal muscles that enables a wide variety of motor performance. The topics will span from the basic feature of skeletal muscles to clinical aspects of human locomotive abilities.


Career Evolution: Reflections from CSB Young Investigators

Salvatore Federico
Andrew Laing

Speakers: Stephen Brown, Clark Dickerson, Janessa Drake, Scott Landry

Young Canadian biomechanics researchers who have been involved as Executive Committee members of the CSB/SCB will reflect on their career evolution, how the CSB factored into their success, and their perspectives on the future of biomechanics (from both basic and applied perspectives)


ASB Teaching Symposium

Kim Bigelow
Erin Feser

Speakers: Michelle Sabick, Kimberly Bigelow, Erika Pliner, Amelia Lanier

Attendees of the International Society of Biomechanics/American Society Biomechanics Meeting are primarily at the meeting to learn and discuss science. However, in addition to being researchers, the majority of us are also educators - whether professors, instructors, teaching assistants, or outreach facilitators. The purpose of this Teaching Symposium, which is an annual event at all ASB meetings, is to provide an outlet for us to come together to learn best practices and new ideas for our courses and outreach activities, share resources and discuss implementation strategies, consider new collaborations, and think about how we can extend our research capabilities to include a focus on the scholarship of teaching and learning.


Hand & Wrist Biomechanics International Symposium

Véronique Feipel
Zong-Ming Li

Speakers: Peter Evans, Fabian Moungondo, Francisco Valero-Cuevas, Zong-Ming Li

The hand and wrist represent one of the most challenging structures in the study of biomechanics, as well as in the evaluation of many biomechanical principles. Hand and wrist biomechanics has been somewhat underdeveloped in comparison to mainstream biomechanics research over the past century. While surgeons and engineers have initiated numerous biomechanical studies, collaborative efforts among scientists and clinicians are required in order for continuing progression in research and further improvement of treatment modalities and outcomes. Therefore, HWBI encompasses a broad spectrum of research including, among others, orthopedic / neurological disorders, ergonomic applications, performance enhancement (e.g. sports), rehabilitation, and motor control. This HWBI symposium will present the most recent research in hand and wrist Biomechanics related to clinical problems in order to highlight the fundamental role of biomechanics research for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with hand and wrist pathologies.


IMU based methods for mobility assessment in real-world condition

Kamiar Aminian

Speakers: Kamiar Aminian, Silvia Del Din, Claudia Mazzà, Andrea Cereatti

With the progress of ambulatory movement analysis based on body-worn inertial measurement units (IMU), new possibilities have opened up in the domain of human mobility monitoring in real-world conditions. IMU-based methods supplemented by other wearable sensors are being used for the assessment of activity profiles and gait features to provide objective evaluation of intervention outcomes, state of the disease, and the patient's overall performance. Within this symposium, we will survey differences between in-lab and real-world gait, the most challenging methods, sensor configurations and techniques to detect walking bouts and estimate spatio-temporal gait parameters in real-world conditions. In particular, we will highlight how the robustness of the methods depends on the number of sensor, sensor modality, data fusion techniques, biomechanically derived features, algorithm personalisation, and real-world validation.


Sunday, August 4th

Quantitative image-based biomechanics

Karen Troy
Pinaki Bhattacharya

Speakers: Thomas Royston, Amy Lenz, Louis DeFrate, Pinaki Bhattacharya

In the last several decades, quantitative imaging techniques have advanced significantly. Methods such as quantitative computed tomography, MR elastography, and 4D CT are now widely used in research settings, and provide important clinical information. Despite their potential, quantitative image-based biomechanical outcomes are the clinical exception, rather than the norm. This symposium will feature several examples of how quantitative image-based metrics of musculoskeletal and organ structure and function can be used to answer research questions and ultimately, inform clinical decision-making. We will highlight challenges to implementation, and areas of opportunity.


Behavioural Energetics: how energy minimization determines how you move

Max Donelan
Jessica Selinger

Speakers: Max Donelan, Manoj Srinivasan, Alaa Ahmed, Jeremy Wong, Jesse Dean, Jessica Selinger, James Finley, Purnima Padmanabhan, Ryan Roemmich, Cara Wall-Scheffler

Biomechanics has a long-standing interest in the mechanical determinants of energetic cost. Over the past few years, there is a growing interest in the flip-side side of this relationship-how our energy requirements determine how we move. Our invited speakers have discovered that the principle of energy minimization explains a surprising number of behaviours beyond steady-state healthy walking including how we reach, move intermittently, adapt to injury, and learn new coordinations. Their research also seeks to understand the underlying mechanisms including how the nervous system senses energetic cost and carries out the optimization. Energy minimization is maturing to become perhaps the most general principle we have for motor control and learning, and our invited speakers exist at the nexus between biomechanics and neuroscience. If you are interested in WHY we move the way we do, we think this symposium is for you.


Exoskeletons and Prostheses

Alena Grabowski
Katherine Steele

Speakers: Rachel Jackson, Philippe Malcolm, Elliott Rouse, Steffen Willwacher, Alena Grabowski

The use of assistive devices such as exoskeletons and prostheses can allow people with physical impairments to regain function. Further, use of such assistive devices could enable augmentation of performance in people with or without physical impairments. In this symposium, five junior faculty and post-doctoral fellows will present their research on the effects of optimizing and using state-of-the-art exoskeletons and lower extremity prostheses for walking, running, sprinting, and jumping. We hope that this invited talk and symposium will generate a productive discussion about the control and use of exoskeletons and prostheses across the spectrum of human locomotion. Further, we hope to engage the audience regarding the use of such assistive devices in athletics competitions.


Frontiers in X-Ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology

Michael Rainbow
Jillian Beveridge

Speakers: Kohta Ito, Kristin Zhao, Louis DeFrate

This symposium focuses on state-of-the-art approaches in x-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM), and how XROMM can be used to address both old and new questions, that together, will expand our understanding of the interface between biomechanics and mechanobiology. Session topics include using XROMM to better understand homologies between primate and human foot biomechanics; innovative hardware and software adaptations that enhance clinical availability; and merging XROMM-derived kinematics with other multi-scale imaging modalities and computational biomechanical models. The session concludes with a panel discussion amongst established and emerging leaders in the field who will share their views on what they believe should be new avenues of biomechanical investigation using XROMM, and what barriers must be overcome to achieve these visions.


Orthopaedic Biomechanics: Integrating pathomechanical knowledge into clinical practice

Don Anderson
Joan Bechtold

Speakers: Jessica Goetz, Arin Ellingson, Claire Brockett, Ted Gross

The focus of this symposium will be on recent research activities toward integrating pathomechanical knowledge, gained at the population-level and/or at the patient-specific level, into the practice of orthopaedic surgery. New and evolving methods, along with results from work in actual patients, will be presented and discussed. The scope of the applications will range from orthopaedic trauma to joint preservation to arthroplasty.


Run Like a Woman: The Biomechanics of Female Runners

Max Paquette
Allison H. Gruber

Speakers: Allison Gruber, Clare Milner, Julie Steele, Isabel Moore, Katherine Boyer, Ana Azevedo, Cristine Agresta, Hilary Stellingwerff

The worldwide popularity of running as a mode of aerobic exercise has inspired running biomechanics research over the last 40 years. Although a higher percentage of men participated in running road races until the mid-2000s, a transition to a greater proportion of female road race participants occurred around 2007 in the US. Relatedly, running biomechanics research in women and on gender differences have become increasingly popular over the last 15 years. Thus, the proposed symposium will include expert speakers in the area of female-specific running biomechanics and will include a two-time female Canadian Olympian in the 1500m. Speaker topics will include biomechanical risk factors for tibial stress fractures, breast kinematics during running and bra design for female runners, sex-specific rehab for injury management in female runners throughout the lifespan, training and footwear interventions in female runners, performance and economy in female runners, and postpartum running biomechanics.


Non-invasive neuromuscular stimulation: principles and applications

Marco Vaz
Nicola Maffiuletti

Speakers: David Collins, Richard Liebano, Nicola Maffiuletti, Guillaume Millet

The basic idea is to provide a simple overview of the major physiological and methodological principles of different stimulation modalities, together with the main applications for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes.


Clinical Applications in Orthopaedics and Osseointegrated Prosthesis for Rehabilitative Medical Research in Korea

Sang Kuy Han

Speakers: Sung-Jae Lee, Jungwha Hong, Gwang-moon Eom, Sung-Jae Kang

The topic of this special session would be "Clinical Applications in Orthopaedics and Osseointegrated Prosthesis for Rehabilitative Medical Research in Korea". This one-hour session would feature four speakers from various Korean universities and institutions. Biomechanics and orthopaedic research for musculoskeletal health have become major fields of study in Korea due to national concern over population ageing. This session would provide critical insight into KSB's current orthopaedic research for attendees.


Total Joint Arthroplasty: No more Limits?

Michael Morlock
Markus Wimmer

Speakers: Michael Morlock, Philipp Damm, Markus Wimmer, Joern Seebeck, Hannah Lundberg

Replacement of the Hip and Knee joints are very successful surgical options improving the quality of life of millions of people every year, total hip replacement has even been called the surgery of the 20th century. The ultimate goal of Total Joint Arthroplasty (TJA) is the "Forgotten Joint", implying that the patient is able to use the artificial joint in a similar way as he uses his native joint. After a short overview of the situation in TJA based on the available registry data, the symposium will address the challenges, which have still not been solved today, focusing on mechanical joint loading. Some of the reasons for still occurring failures in TJA are presented and discussed together with the attempts to prevent them in the future by using the forces and moments acting on the knee and hip joint during activities for the improvement of the existing prostheses.


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